Further research conducted using other vitamins, such as MK-7, would allow comparison with existing results and a definitive conclusion could be drawn on its use to treat hypoparathyroidism. Due to its properties in reducing vascular calcification, there is a possibility that hyperparathyroidism natural vitamin k2 is also treated with vitamin K2 due to the prevention of calcification. In addition, Cohen et al. identified low BMD in subjects with cerebral palsy, and concluded that because of the properties that vitamin K2 exhibits, future research could confirm its use in treatment.

Vitamin K is a crucial nutrient for calcium metabolism, bone health, blood clotting, heart health and more. As a supplement, vitamin K2 can help with osteoporosis, heart disease, inflammation and more. Read on to learn about the benefits, side effects, and food sources of vitamin K2. The source of the two main forms of vitamin K differs; Vitamin K1 is mainly found in green leafy vegetables, such as spinach, cabbage and kale, and absorption increases in the presence of butter or oils.

Once released into sperm, calcium ions further contribute to its development, help stimulate its mobility and increase the likelihood of fertilization. Research has shown that calcium ions (Ca2+) regulate this sperm via Ca2+ protein channels in the membrane of reproductive cells. Affirming that Ca2+ are essential for male fertility, a study has shown that vitamin D deficiency caused a reduction in sperm motility.

In the case of MOP, dephosphorylated-non-carboxylated MGP (dp-ucMGP) is phosphorylated to subcarboxylated MOP. This allows for further carboxylation of five glutamate residues by the active form of vitamin K and its GGCX cofactor. These residues provide active sites for the removal of apoptotic bodies, calcium ions and matrix vesicles.

Although there were elevations in UCOC, there was no variation in BMD in the same studies; however, these studies included subjects without pathological bone disease. This could indicate that vitamin K2 can be used as a treatment but has no prophylactic use. Before observing the specific effects that vitamin K2 establishes on calcium metabolism, it is vital to consider the fundamental properties that a vitamin possesses. Vitamins have essential physiological functions in the body, and without sufficient levels, diseases can develop. Each vitamin differs not only by its function, but also in how it is metabolized in the body. For example, vitamin D can be synthesized by the interaction of ultraviolet B rays by activating the 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) present in the skin.

It is widely believed that the benefits of vitamin K are limited to its role in blood clotting. Another popular misconception is that vitamins K1 and K2 are simply different forms of the same vitamin, with the same physiological functions. Nakashima et al. showed that serum concentrations of carboxylated AAC increased after 12 months of treatment with MK-4.